April 17, 2024


Health know-how

Nerve Problems and Concussions Related To Pupils and Eyes

7 Common Eye Symptoms after Concussion - TheraSpecs

A sudden blow to the head may lead to one or both of your pupils dilating in a serious brain injury. Anisocoria, Coloboma, Pituitary gland tumor, Third cranial nerve palsy, brain injury, Cluster headache, Iritis, Adie syndrome, Horner’s syndrome affect the pupils.

Concussions and dilated pupils:

Pupils of unequal sizes or dilated pupils indicate that a person is impacted by a terrible concussion or a more austere form of TBI than a concussion.

Concussion may give rise to temporary or permanent vision-related symptoms. Some critical injuries may cause permanent damage to the optic nerve. This is a result of a communication problem between the eyes and brain resulting from the injury. Often doctors perform a swinging light test to find out pupil reactivity.

Pupillary evaluation is a noninvasive and rapid test that offers an indication of the nervous system and eye health. An injury of the upper brain stem or the third cranial nerve may cause a unilateral fixed dilated pupil.

The pupil diameter measurement is essential as the pupils tend to be smaller in reaction to light during the daytime. They enlarge at night to enable more light to get into the eyes. 

One of the important parts of the neurological assessment is pupil evaluation. Any alteration in the size, equality, and reactivity of the pupils may deliver significant diagnostic information.

Some medications may affect your pupils

● Amphetamines

● Antihistamines 

● Antipsychotics

● Botox

● Decongestants

● Medications for Parkinson’s disease

● Medications to prevent seizures 

● Muscle relaxants

● Tricyclic antidepressants

The pupil diameter is governed by pupillary light reflex in reaction to the intensity of light. In the back of the eye, the retinal ganglion cells of the retina assist in the adaptation of perception to numerous levels of lightness and darkness.

The benefits of pupil measurement in neurological treatment:

Pupil reactivity is a physiological reaction that alters the size of the pupil through the oculomotor and optic cranial nerve. By evaluating the patient’s pupils, doctors gain information regarding the brain and deduce whether there has been a rise in intracranial pressure. The pupil assessment is done for their size and shape, as well as how they react to the light.

The NPI 300 pupillometer 

● offers accurate pupillary size measurement and reactivity data unrestricted by the examiner

● In pupil reactivity, the numerical expression alters in case of both pupil size and reactivity. 

● The high-precision optics offers a permanent ergonomic design

The contour of the pupil is used to measure pupil sizeThis digital pupilometer helps measure the distance between the center of each pupil. The range varies from 47 to 84 mm in 0.5mm steps. The distance between the center of each pupil is measured by the corneal reflection pupil diameter measurement.

Pupil Reactivity: 

Pupil reactivity or pupillary response is a physiological reaction that differs the size of the pupil via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerves. The narrowing of the pupil or constriction response may be caused by scleral buckles or drugs like medications to respond to hypertension. 

The pupillary light reflex helps allow the eye to regulate the amount of light entering the retina and protect the photoreceptors from entering bright lights.

Neurological assessment helps to detect neurological disease in a patient. They monitor the progression and determine the type of treatment one needs. 

Pupillary Reaction:

The cutting-edge tech revolutionizing pupillary evaluation along with pupillary light reflects been used in neurosurgery, applied research, critical care medicine, neurology, and emergency medicine. It helps clinicians improve patient outcomes. 

The hypothalamus regulates homeostatic mechanisms. It governs both autonomic and endocrine functions. The pupillary reflexes exemplify the significance of the control center.

Pupil size is a crucial factor involving visual acuity. Large pupils undergo more light, stimulate the retina and reduce diffraction. However, the resolution gets affected by anomalies of the eye. On the contrary, a small pupil lowers optical aberrations, but the resolution is diffraction-limited.

Vision Problems due to Brain Injury:

In a head-injured patient, acute pupillary dilation is a neurological emergency. Pupil dilation takes place due to brain stem compromise and herniation, causing mechanical compression of the cranial nerve.

Several researchers have used pupillometry for pupil diameter measurement and assessed the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. They help observe drug injury and fatigue, gauge the metabolism of drugs, and numerous other applications in both human beings and animals.

In ICUs, the pupillometers are utilized for severely ill neurological patients. Apart from measuring pupillary reaction and size, it is also helpful for optical pupillometry in traumatic brain injury.

A neurological assessment is but the inspection of sensory neurons and motor responses. The reflexes help examine the nervous system. A physical test along with a review of the patient’s medical history is required.

The pupillary diameter or Iris size is controlled by two muscles, namely the dilator pupillae and sphincter pupillae. The first one is under the control of the parasympathetic nervous system, while the latter functions under the control of sympathetic nervous system.

Some of the common vision problems that occur following a traumatic brain injury are

● Eye focusing – Your capacity to switch focus between objects between near and far distances may be compromised. This is known as Blurred vision.

● Eye teaming – In this condition, your eyes may not work jointly in a proper way, even to the point of undergoing double vision.  

Due to increased internal pressure, the pupil goes through several transformations. These are invisible to the naked eyes or the penlight before it gets enlarged and come to be unreactive. 

An improved pupil evaluation helps treat head injury. Besides measuring pupillary size and response, it is also important for the pupillary response in traumatic brain injury.

Sometimes emotional responses may cause your pupils to get larger. Studies have found when people hear someone cry or laugh, and their pupils get dilated. Your pupils may also get larger if you see something that causes an emotional reaction.